Episode 29
Lesson Recap
Title

When NOT To Use Particle 을/를 (Part 2 of 을/를!)

Key Points &
Highlights
  • With some descriptive verbs (DV) in Korean like,


          있다 to be present or to have없다 to be absent or to not have,
          많다 to be many, to be much, or to have many or to have much,
          적다 to be few or to have few,
          필요하다 to be necessary or to need,


What seems to be the object of the sentence when translated into English, cannot be followed by 을/를. It can, however, be followed by 이/가, 은/는, or 도, depending on what the speaker means to say.


  • With a descriptive verb, if you want to place an emphasis on the object of the sentence, you would add the 이/가 particle after the object of the sentence


  • Object particle 을/를 cannot be paired with a descriptive verb

Expressions
  • a book


  • 친구 a friend


  • 우리 we; us


  • 휴가 vacation


  • 있다 to be present or to have


  • 없다 to be absent or to not have


  • 많다 to be many, to be much, or to have many or to have much


  • 적다 to be few or to have few


  • 필요하다 to be necessary or to need


  • 수지가 책 있어요  Susie has the book


  • 수지가 책이 있어요 Susie has the book (with an emphasis on the book)


  • 수지가 책도 있어요 Susie has the book (in addition to something else she has)


  • 브라이언이 친구가 없어요 What Brian doesn’t have is friends.


  • 브라이언이 친구는 없어요 Brian doesn’t have friends at least (implying that he has other valuable things in life)


  • 브라이언이 친구도 없어요 Brian doesn’t have friends also (besides other things he does not have…)


  • 브라이언이 친구 없어요 Brian who doesn’t have friends (the subject phrase “브라이언이” seems more emphasized)


  • 우리가 휴가가 필요해요 What we need is a vacation


  • 우리가 휴가는 필요해요  We need a vacation at least (implying that we may not need other things but we do need a vacation)


  • 우리가 휴가도 필요해요 We need a vacation also (besides other things we need…)


  • 우리가 휴가 필요해요 It’s we who need a vacation

Exercises

I. Directions: Select the particle which cannot fill the blanks in the given sentences.


1. 수지가 책_____ 있어요.
a) 이     b) 도     c) 을     d) 은


2. 브라이언이 친구_____ 없어요.
a) 가     b) 도     c) 를     d) 는


3. 우리가 휴가_____ 필요해요.

a) 가     b) 도     c) 를     d) 는



II. Select the sentences which most closely reflect the meaning of the English sentences.


1. “ Susie has the book (in addition to something else she has).”
a) 수지가 책이 있어요.
b) 수지가 책도 있어요.
c) 수지가 책 있어요.


2. “Brian doesn’t have friends at least (implying that he has other valuable things in life).”
a) 브라이언이 친구는 없어요.
b) 브라이언이 친구도 없어요. 
c) 브라이언이 친구 없어요.


3. “What we need is a vacation (highlighting the vacation).”
a) 우리가 휴가는 필요해요.
b) 우리가 휴가도 필요해요.
c) 우리가 휴가가 필요해요.

Episode 29
Transcript

Hello, this is Kay from Essential Korean. 안녕하세요. EK Kay샘입니다.


In the last episode, we established a few rules to follow for the object particle 을/를, and in this episode, we’re going to be discussing exceptions and places where you can’t use 을/를 as a part 2. It’ll be a short and sweet episode, where we focus on the grammar, and as always, situational examples.


So, without further ado, let’s get right to it!


Let’s start with an example sentence: 수지가 책 있어요 which, translated in English, means Susie has the book, with the subject of the sentence being Susie, the object being the book, and the verb to be has. However, with some Korean verbs like:


있다 to be present or to have;

없다 to be absent or to not have;

많다 to be many, to be much, or to have many or to have much;

적다 to be few or to have few; and

필요하다 to be necessary or to need


that are descriptive verbs (DV) in Korean, what seems to be the object of the sentence when translated in English, in this case, 책, cannot be followed by 을/를 -- It can, however, be followed by 이/가, 은/는, or 도, depending on what the speaker means to say.

Thus, we can say,


  • 책이 있어요 to say someone HAS a book rather than there IS a book or a book IS present (because 있어요 has two meanings!), and 책, the object of the sentence, is followed by 이 which highlights what someone has, to mean (someone) HAS the book;


  • What about if you want to place an emphasis on the object of the sentence, the book 책,  and say Susie has the book In Korean? Yes, normally, you can put emphasis on the object of the sentence with the object particle 을/를. However, with a descriptive verb, you would add the 이/가 particle after the object of the sentence like this: 수지가 책이 있어요.


Please repeat after me to say Susie has the book, with an emphasis on the book, the object of the sentence :


수지가 / 책이 / 있어요; 수지가 책이 / 있어요;  수지가 책이 있어요.


  • Some of you may be wondering how we can have 이/가 following both the subject and the object of the sentence. The answer is that it’s an exception that happens only with descriptive verbs, and I’d suggest you just memorize it as a rule. Remember that the two types of verbs in Korean, descriptive verbs and action verbs, don’t always fit into what we would perceive in English as “descriptive” or “action,” so learn them as you go and don’t worry too much about making a mistake with it.


  • We can also have the sentence 수지가 책은 있어요 to mean Susie does have the book (at least). Please repeat after me to say the sentence, while paying attention to the particles after the subject and the object: 

            수지가 / 책은 / 있어요; 

            수지가 책은 / 있어요; 

            수지가 책은 있어요


  • 수지가 책도 있어요 to mean Susie has the book (in addition to something else she has). Please repeat after me while paying attention to the particles after the subject and the object:

          수지가 / 책도 / 있어요 ; 

          수지가 책도   / 있어요 ; 

          수지가 책도 있어요


Also, remember that one CANNOT say

(X) 수지가 책을 있어요, which would simply be grammatically wrong.


On that same line of thinking, It would be wrong to say


(X) 수지가 책을 없어요 to mean Susie doesn’t have the book because the object particle 을/를 cannot be paired with the verb 없다, a descriptive verb, in a given sentence.


Let’s use a different subject and object with the verb 없다, to not have and create a few possible sentences:


  • 브라이언이 친구가 없어요, where the particle 이/가 follows both 브라이언, the subject of the sentence, and 친구, friends, the object of the sentence. This sentence 브라이언이 친구가 없어요 would mean what Brian doesn’t have is friends. Please repeat after me to say what Brian doesn’t have is friends in Korean as you pay attention to the particles after 브라이언 and 친구:  

            브라이언이 / 친구가 / 없어요 ; 

            브라이언이 친구가 / 없어요 ; 

            브라이언이 친구가 없어요


  • The next possible sentence is, 브라이언이 친구는 없어요 which means Brian doesn’t have friends at least (implying that he has other valuable things in life). Please repeat after me to say, contrary to what he may have, Brian doesn’t have friends at least. Please say it as you pay attention to the particles after 브라이언 and 친구 here too: 

           브라이언이 / 친구는 / 없어요; 

           브라이언이  친구는 / 없어요; 

           브라이언이 친구는 없어요


  • The next possible sentence is 브라이언이 친구도 없어요, which means Brian doesn’t have friends also (besides other things he does not have…). Please repeat after me to say that yourself:  

           브라이언이 / 친구도 / 없어요 ; 

           브라이언이  친구도 / 없어요 ;

           브라이언이 친구도 없어요


  • The next possible sentence is 브라이언이 친구 없어요 where a particle 이/가 is absent after 친구. With the object particle absent in the sentence, the subject phrase “브라이언이” seems more emphasized. Please repeat after me to say It’s Brian who doesn’t have friends in Korean: 

           브라이언이 / 친구 / 없어요. ;  

           브라이언이 친구 / 없어요. ; 

           브라이언이 친구 없어요.


For the third set of sentences, let’s use a verb we haven’t used: 필요하다, which is a descriptive verb in Korean and means to need. Let’s create a few possible sentences which express us needing a vacation:


  • 우리가 휴가가 필요해요 where the particle 이/가 follows both 우리, we, the subject of the sentence, and 휴가, vacation, the object of the sentence. This sentence 우리가 휴가가 필요해요 would mean what we need is a vacation. Please repeat after me to say what we need is a vacation in Korean as you pay attention to the particles after 우리 we and 휴가 vacation: 

           우리가 /휴가가 / 필요해요; 

           우리가 휴가가 / 필요해요; 

           우리가 휴가가 필요해요


The next possible sentence is, 우리가 휴가는 필요해요 which means we need a vacation at least (implying that we may not need other things but we do need a vacation). Please repeat after me to say, contrary to what we may not need, we need a vacation at least. Please say it as you pay attention to the particles after 우리 and 휴가 here too:


우리가 / 휴가는 / 필요해요

우리가 휴가는 / 필요해요;

우리가 휴가는 필요해요


  • The next possible sentence is 우리가 휴가도 필요해요, which means we need a vacation also (besides other things we need…). Please repeat after me to say that we need a vacation too besides other things we need (like work performance or achievement):  

           우리가 / 휴가도 / 필요해요; 

           우리가 휴가도 /  필요해요; 

           우리가 휴가도 필요해요


  • The next possible sentence is 우리가 휴가 필요해요 where there is no particle after the object of the sentence 휴가. With the object particle absent in the sentence, the subject phrase “우리가” seems more emphasized. Please repeat after me to say It’s we who need a vacation:

          우리가 /휴가/  필요해요; 

          우리가 휴가 / 필요해요;

          우리가 휴가 필요해요


Great job! We’ll be dedicating a full episode to reviewing particles and comparing them to each other, so stay tuned for that in the coming weeks.


That concludes today’s episode. I hope 을/를 is solid in your minds by now, but if it isn’t, we’ll be posting the lesson recap and transcript on our website later, or you could always listen to the episode again.


Ok, that’s it for today. Until next time, keep studying hard ~ 


고맙습니다!