Episode 21
Lesson Recap

How To Connect Nouns with 하고 & Sentences with 그리고 + Using Particle 은/는 with them

Key Points &
  • It’s possible to have the particle 은/는 after the subject and also after the object in the same sentence. 

           Example : 토마스는  티는 마셔요

                                As for Thomas, he at least drinks  tea.

  • Both 하고 and 그리고 means ‘and,’ but 하고 can connect only nouns and 그리고 connects sentences. 하고 cannot be used to connect sentences.

  • 하고 immediately follows noun A, even with no space in writing

              A하고 B : A and B 

              커피하고 티 : coffee and tea

  • When connecting more than two nouns, add 하고 until before the last noun, but in some cases, the speaker might add 하고 after the last noun as well

           A하고 B하고 C하고 D or  A하고 B하고 C하고 D하고 : A, B, C, and D

          서울하고 뉴욕하고 런던하고 파리  or  서울하고 뉴욕하고 런던하고 파리하고

  • As with the 은/는 particle, a string of nouns connected with 하고 is considered one unit: we do not place a particle after each noun or after each 하고 in a string of nouns. The particle is added only after the last noun or pronoun in the string:

            [A하고 B하고 C]은/는

            케이쌤하고 토마스는 : as for teacher Kay and Thomas

            케이샘하고 토마스]는 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요 : Teacher Kay and Thomas drink Iced tea and wine.

  • 토마스하고 케이쌤은 아이스티 마셔요 : Thomas and Teacher Kay drink iced tea

  • 토마스하고 케이쌤은 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요 : As for Thomas and Teacher Kay, they are drinking iced tea and wine

  • 토마스하고 케이샘은 아이스티하고 와인은  마셔요 : As for Thomas and Teacher Kay, they are drinking at least iced tea and wine.

  • 토마스는 아이스티 마셔요. 그리고 케이샘은 와인  마셔요 : Thomas is drinking iced tea. And Teacher Kay is drinking wine


Check Up Quiz

Directions: True or False?

1. “하고 can be used to connect both nouns and sentences in Korean.”

2. “In Korean, a string of nouns can be connected with having 하고 following each noun in the string except the last noun.”

3. “In string of nouns connected with 하고, the 은/는 particle should be added after each noun plus 하고 combination.”


Directions : Assume the role in the situations and respond utilizing 하고 and the 은/는 particle learned in this episode.

Situation for 1,  2, and 3: You and your colleagues, Sumin and Thomas, are at a new fancy cafe nearby work. Another colleague, JinWoo, just arrived to join you guys after a meeting.

1. JinWoo looks over the menu and asks what’s good here. (You like sandwiches and soup served at the cafe.)

2. After ordering, JinWoo looks at the drinks in fancy cups and glasses that you three are having and wonders what they are. (You and Soomin are having iced cappuccino; Thomas is having iced green tea.)

3. JinWoo is surprised that you and Sumin are having cappuccino because he thought you and Soomin don’t drink coffee. (As for you and Soomin, you two drink cappuccino at least.)

Episode 21

Hello, this is Kay from EssentialKorean.com. 안녕하세요. Essential Korean Kay샘입니다 ~

In this episode, we will learn to do two things. One, how to connect nouns in Korean; and two, utilize the connector within sentences with the 은/는 particle we learned in the previous episode to create sentences a little longer than we’ve had so far. Does that sound good? Very good :) Let’s get to work.

The noun connector 하고 (vs. 그리고)

There are a few words we can use to connect nouns in Korean, namely 와/과, 이랑/랑, and 하고. They all have the same meaning, but differing levels of formality: people may choose one to sound formal and another to sound more casual. Today, we’ll focus on 하고, which can be used in everyday situations.

You add the word 하고 to a noun to mean and. In writing, there is no space between the noun and 하고 as the word ‘하고' is a particle, and as mentioned in the previous episode, you pronounce a noun and a particle combo like one word, without a pause.

Let’s say you want to say my friend and I. It’d be 내 친구하고 나. 내 친구 which means my friend, is immediately followed by 하고, and  나 which means I. Repeat after me to say my friend and I: 

내 친구/하고/ 나     내 친구하고/ 나     내 친구하고 나

How about  the phrase for Korean and English? Korean is  한국말 and English is 영어. So it’d be 한국말하고 영어. Repeat after me to say Korean and English:

한국말/하고/ 영어     한국말하고/ 영어     한국말하고 영어

How about Seoul and New York? Yes, it’d be 서울하고 뉴욕. Repeat after me to say Seoul and New York: 

서울/하고 뉴욕     서울하고/ 뉴욕    서울하고 뉴욕

You can have a string of nouns connected with the particle 하고 after each noun, until before the last noun in the string. So, if you want to say Seoul, New York, and London, You’d say, 서울하고 뉴욕하고 런던  I’ll say the phrase again. Repeat after me: 

서울/하고/  뉴욕/하고/ 런던    서울하고/ 뉴욕하고/ 런던   서울하고 뉴욕하고 런던

Very good.

Likewise, if you want to connect 4 nouns, add 하고 after each of the first three nouns and then say the fourth noun. So, if we add one more city, 파리 for Paris to the string of three cities, Seoul, New York, and London,  we have  서울하고 뉴욕하고 런던하고 파리.. Repeat after me:  서울/하고 뉴욕/하고 런던/하고 파리       서울하고 / 뉴욕하고/ 런던하고/ 파리        서울하고 뉴욕하고 런던하고 파리

In more informal settings, though, you may actually hear native speakers adding noun connectors like 하고 to the last noun in a noun sequence. If we applied this to the example before, we would say 서울하고 뉴욕하고 런던하고 파리하고. When starting out with Korean, I think it’s easier to just remember it the traditional way without the noun connector after the last noun, but I want to include this so you won’t get confused in the case it happens.

Let’s change the category and try listing a few drinks. How about  coffee, latte, tea, and juice? Give it a try. . . . . .

Did you say 커피하고 라떼하고 티하고 주스? Repeat after me to say coffee, latte, tea, and juice:  커피/하고 라떼/하고. 티/하고. 주스     커피하고/ 라떼하고/ 티하고 주스      커피하고 라떼하고 티하고 주스

One important thing to note here is that 하고 connects nouns, but 하고 cannot be used to connect sentences. The connector for sentences with the meaning and is 그리고  그리고 그리고. In the previous episode, we learned a conjunctive word 그런데 which has a meaning between and and but.  Add one more to your list of Korean conjunctive words, 그리고, which means and. So in short, 하고 is a noun connector and 그리고 is a sentence connector, both with the meaning and.

Expansion with 은/는 particle

Now, let’s move on to expanding the lesson from last episode with what we just learned.

Imagine you and me at a party. Someone asks our friend Thomas what he’s drinking: 뭐 마셔요? Thomas who’s holding a cup of iced tea would say:  아이스티 마셔요. The person then asks me what I’m having: 뭐 마셔요?  I’m having wine 나는 와인 마셔요. which means: As for me, I’m drinking wine. 나는 와인 마셔요.

Now, I'll ask you a few questions based on the short exchange of dialogue you just heard. You can utilize the 은/는 particle from the previous episode and the noun connector  하고 in your answers.

Q1: 토마스는 뭐 마셔요?

토마스는 뭐 마셔요? As for Thomas, what is he drinking? 토마스는 뭐 마셔요?

I’m waiting for your answer…  You’re correct if your answer was: 토마스는 아이스티 마셔요. As for Thomas, he’s having iced tea. Please repeat after me:

토마스는 / 아이스티/  마셔요     토마스는 아이스티 마셔요     토마스는 아이스티 마셔요.

Here, 는 is used as a topic particle, signaling Thomas as the topic of the conversation.

Q2: 토마스는 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요?

For Q2, what if I asked you this:  토마스는 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요? As for Thomas, is he drinking iced tea and wine? 토마스는 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요?

This is a perfect place to utilize 은/는 as a contrastive particle: Iced tea, yes, he’s having that; but wine, he’s not. 아이스티는 마셔요. 그런데 와인은 안 마셔요. Notice the 은/는 particle after 아이스티 and 와인. Listen again. 아이스티는 마셔요. 그런데 와인은 안 마셔요.

You may choose to have the subject phrase 토마스는, as for Thomas, if you want to emphasize that it’s Thomas we’re talking about, or if we’re comparing Thomas with someone else. Please listen: 토마스는 아이스티는 마셔요. 그런데 와인은 안 마셔요. (As for Thomas, he’s drinking iced tea. But he’s not drinking wine. )

As you can see in this sentence, 토마스는 아이스티는 마셔요, you can have the 은/는 particle after both the subject, in this case Thomas, AND the object, the iced tea. Listen again to the dialogue, the exchange of the question and answer:

Q: 토마스는 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요?
A: 아니요, 토마스는 아이스티는 마셔요. 그런데 와인은 안 마셔요.

Is Thomas having iced tea and wine?
No, Thomas is having iced tea. But he’s not drinking wine.

Please repeat after me in saying Thomas is having iced tea; but wine on the other hand, he’s not having that:

토마스는/ 아이스티/는 마셔요. 그런데/ 와인/은 안 마셔요.
토마스는/ 아이스티는/ 마셔요. 그런데/ 와인은/ 안 마셔요.
토마스는 아이스티는 마셔요. 그런데 와인은 안 마셔요.

Q3: 케이쌤은 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요?

How would you answer the next question, Q3? 케이쌤은 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요?  As for Teacher Kay, is she drinking iced tea and wine? 케이쌤은 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요?  Think back to how we  utilized the 은/는 particle to answer the previous question, and apply that here.

Correct if you said: 케이샘은 와인은 마셔요. 그런데 아이스티는 안 마셔요.  As for teacher Kay, she’s having wine. (On the other hand), she’s not having iced tea. Please repeat after me to communicate that Teacher Kay is having wine (at least); but iced tea (on the other hand), she’s not; and we do this with the help from the 은/는 particle:

케이샘은/ 와인/은/  마셔요. 그런데 /아이스티/는/ 안 마셔요.
케이샘은/ 와인은/  마셔요. 그런데/ 아이스티는/ 안 마셔요.

케이샘은/ 와인은  마셔요. 그런데/ 아이스티는 안 마셔요.

(Key Point 1)

The point I wanted to get across by going through Questions 1, 2, and 3 is that, yes, it is possible to have the particle 은/는 after the subject and also after the object in the same sentence.

(Key Point 2)

The next question is for the second Key Point of today’s lesson: Consider the string of nouns connected with 하고 as one unit and place an appropriate particle after the last noun in the string.

Q4: 토마스하고 케이쌤은 뭐 마셔요?

Let me explain with Q4, where I’ll now ask about Thomas and Teacher Kay together: As for Thomas and Teacher Kay, what are they drinking? 토마스하고 케이쌤은 뭐 마셔요?

Before answering the question, did you notice where the particle 은/는 is placed in the topic phrase, Thomas and Teacher Kay? Yes, it’s after 케이 쌤: 토마스하고 케이쌤은.

As shown here, we do not place a particle after each noun or after each 하고 in a string of nouns. The particle is added only after the last noun or pronoun in the string.  Thus, consider the string of nouns connected with 하고 as one unit and remember to place an appropriate particle always after the last noun. This rule applies not only to the 은/는 particle but to all particles.

Ok, with that in mind, listen to the question again and answer:  토마스하고 케이쌤은 뭐 마셔요? You’re correct if you said, 토마스하고 케이쌤은 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요 -Thomas and Teacher Kay are drinking iced tea and wine.

Sentences can get longer with the connector 하고, but try not to get intimidated. Sentences with multi-subjects and multi-objects are, essentially, in the same structure as sentences with a single-subject and single-object. For example, in the sentence, 토마스는 아이스티 마셔요, Thomas is drinking iced tea, 토마스는 is a single-subject phrase and 아이스티  is a single-object. In the sentence 토마스하고 케이샘은 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요, Thomas and Teacher Kay are drinking iced tea and wine,  the phrase ‘토마스하고 케이샘은’ is a multi-subject and the phrase 아이스티하고 와인 is a multi-object. One sounds short and simple and the other longer and therefore more complex. It helps, then, to simplify the sentence structure by thinking about it in chunks. Please try it as you listen to these two sentences.

토마스는 (the subject chunk) 아이스티 (the object chunk) 마셔요
토마스하고 케이샘은 (that’s the subject chunk) 아이스티하고 와인 (that’s the object chunk) 마셔요

One more time, without my interruptions.

토마스는 아이스티 마셔요
토마스하고 케이샘은 아이스티하고 와인 마셔요

Can you visualize that the two sentences are essentially in the same structure; it’s just that the strings of pronouns and nouns got longer with the connector 하고? I hope you did.

Just as we witnessed how the 은/는 particle can be added after the single-subject phrase and the single-object phrase in the sentence, 토마스는 아이스티는 마셔요, we can have 은/는 particle in a multi-subject and multi-object phrases as well. Listen to this sentence:

토마스하고 케이샘/은 아이스티하고 와인/은  마셔요

Did you notice 은 after 케이샘 and also after 와인? Listen again:
토마스하고 케이샘은 아이스티하고 와인은  마셔요.

So what does the particle 은 after 토마스하고 케이샘 and also after 아이스티하고 와인 do?  Well, they add a nuance and meaning in an implicit way. It’s saying, As for Thomas and Teacher Kay, 토마스하고 케이샘은; at least iced tea and wine, 아이스티하고 와인은 (this implies that there may be other drinks they’re not having, but they’re at least having iced tea and wine,); they drink 마셔요. ) All these extra layers of nuance and meaning are being carried out by the wonderful particle 은/는. So, I know a lot of learners find the particle system a real headache, but depending on how you look at it, they’re really wonderful tools to communicate your intention and thoughts subtly but clearly. So don’t hate these Korean particles but rather embrace them for the roles they play in the Korean language :)

Okay. Enough about why we should love the notorious Korean particle system, let’s get back to work and practice speaking. Repeat after me to communicate the idea that,  As for Teacher Kay and Thomas, they are drinking wine and iced tea at least:

케이쌤하고 토마스/는 /  와인하고 아이스티/는 마셔요.
케이쌤하고 토마스는/  와인하고 아이스티는 마셔요.
케이쌤하고 토마스는  와인하고 아이스티는  마셔요.

To review: Key Point 1, it’s possible to have the 은/는 particle in more than one place in a given sentence. Key point 2, in a string of nouns connected with a noun connector like 하고, add a particle after the last noun in the string.

Ok, I’ll leave you with a little homework. While the outro music is playing, try creating a  sentence or two to tell about what two or more people do. You will have to utilize the noun connector 하고 and depending on how you construct what you want to say, you may also use the conjunctive word 그리고 or 그런데. And of course, utilize the 은/는 particle as well.

I wanted to give you a sound basis to start building sentences, so I didn’t give you too many new words today. I hope you’d listen to this episode again to review, and don’t forget to  engage in active learning. I’ll be back soon. Until then, stay healthy, keep making Korean sentences in your spare time and, most importantly,  have fun!

Happy learning everyone!