Episode 25 Lesson Recap
Title

Learn More Korean Numbers (20 to 90 in increments of 10) & New Noun Connector 와/과 

Key Points &
Highlights
  • Learn the Korean numbers from 20 to 90 in increments of 10, with a story :) 
     

  • 와/과

    • connects only nouns​, with the meaning and

    • sounds more formal than 하고

    • 와 follows a noun ending with a vowel; 과 follows a noun ending with a consonant
       

  • Noun connectors 하고 & 와/과

    • ​when no noun follows after {noun+와/과} and also {noun+하고}, the 와/과 set and 하고 carries the meaning of with.

 Words & Expressions
  • 20 : 스물 / 30 : 서른 / 40 : 마흔 / 50 : 쉰 / 60 : 예순 / 70 : 일흔 / 80 : 여든 / 90 : 아흔

  • oranges and watermelon오렌지와 수박

  • watermelon and oranges : 수박과 오렌지

  • my friend and I : 내 친구와 나

  • today and tomorrow : 오늘과 내일 

  • My friend and I are exercising together: 내 친구와 나는 같이 운동해요

  • My friend and I are busy at least today and tomorrow : 내 친구와 나는 오늘하고 내일은 바빠요

  • I, with my friend, exercise : 나는 내 친구하고 운동해요

  •  you : ​(equivalent to you in English, but this term is used to address ONLY one’s close friends or younger siblings)  

  • 난 너와 : I with you 

  • (someone)와/과 : I with (someone)

Check-up Quiz

I. Circle T if the given statement is true and F if the given statement is false. 

1.  T /  F  :  "일흔 is the Korean equivalent for 50."
2.  T /  F  :  "아흔 is the Korean equivalent for 90."
3.  T /  F  :  "와 is less formal than 하고"
4.  T /  F  :  "The noun connector 과 follows a word which ends in a consonant." 
5.  T /  F  :  "We can also use 와/과 to connect verbs."

II. Fill in the blank with the correct connector -- either 와 or 과 -- and complete the given phrases. 

1. 키위_____ 바나나

2. 베이글_____ 토스트 

3. 빌딩_____ 오피스

Episode 25 Transcript

Hello, this is Kay from EssentialKorean.com. 안녕하세요. EK Kay샘입니다.

Before starting today’s episode, I have a really special announcement to make: we’re releasing the Essential Korean Membership on our website! This has been in the works for a long time and includes access to all our conversation and grammar points as well as our new EK Challenges. I’m especially excited to open up the Challenges. They’re bite-sized, one- to two-week programs with clear objectives and have been made to feel manageable and empowering. You’ll be learning Korean words and phrases daily, and I find that the structure helps keep learners motivated to practice. 

Even if you’re not interested in the membership, I would recommend you check out the Essential Korean website. We’ve made major updates to our content and are constantly working on adding new features for members and non-members alike. I promise you’ll find something useful if you take the time to look around.

Ok, let’s now jump into the lesson. In today’s episode, I'll introduce the Korean number words from 20 to 90 in increments of 10. Then, we’ll learn about a new noun connector, the 와/과 set. And, of course, I have a song I want to share with you. It’s a song by Psy,  titled 낙원, which means Paradise.

We have a lesson packed with exciting material, so let’s get right to it! 

For today’s numbers, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90, I couldn't find a song or a single common feature to highlight, so... I created a story with cues for the first sound of each number. Many students have trouble memorizing the words, so hopefully, this little ‘story’ helps those who have a hard time remembering the Korean native numbers. 

 

It’s a little out there, but stick with me: you may be surprised by how helpful it is!

Let’s do this together. I will repeat each number word three times: 

We get ready to start our journey and say 스물 스물 스물 for the number 20;
On the 30th day, we leave for South Korea’s capital, 서울 Seoul, and say 서른 서른 서른 for the number 30;
After that, on the 40th day, we head to Mars and say 마흔 마흔 마흔 for the number 40;
On the 50th day, we want to quietly admire stars so say ‘shhhhh’ to say 쉰 쉰 쉰 for the number 50;
On the 60th day, wanting to be back in Seoul, we say yes to returning and say 예순 예순 예순 for the number 60;
On the 70th day, from Seoul this time, we admire the illuminated stars and say 일흔 일흔 일흔 for the number 70;
On the 80th day, satisfied with our star-gazing, we finally get to eat the Korean food we’ve been craving and say yummy for 여든 여든 여든 for the number 80;

And finally, on the 90th day, we have an ‘aha’ moment with Korean numbers and say 아흔 아흔 아흔 for the number 90.  

Did you imagine the imaginary trip to Korea to Mars and back to Korea and get help for memorizing the Korean numbers from 20 to 90  in increments of 10? I sure hope so! 

Here are the numbers again, without the story.

20 is 스물, 30 is 서른, 40 is 마흔, 50 is 쉰, 60 is 예순, 70 is 일흔, 80 is 여든, 90 is 아흔

I’ll repeat the story. Please imagine placing a dot on each number word and follow the journey by connecting them:

We get ready to start our journey and say 스물 스물 스물 for the number 20;
On the 30th day, we leave for South Korea’s capital, 서울 Seoul, and say 서른 서른 서른 for the number 30;
After that, on the 40th day, we head to Mars and say 마흔 마흔 마흔 for the number 40;
On the 50th day, we want to quietly admire stars so say ‘shhhhh’ to say 쉰 쉰 쉰 for the number 50;
On the 60th day, wanting to be back in Seoul, we say yes to returning and say 예순 예순 예순 for the number 60;
On the 70th day, from Seoul this time, we admire the illuminated stars and say 일흔 일흔 일흔 for the number 70;
On the 80th day, satisfied with our star-gazing, we finally get to eat the Korean food we’ve been craving and say yummy for 여든 여든 여든 for the number 80;

And finally, on the 90th day, we have an ‘aha’ moment with Korean numbers and say 아흔 아흔 아흔 for the number 90.  

 

Great! Keep practicing Korean numbers with the help of the song and the cues presented.

Now, let’s move on to the next lesson topic: the 와/과 set. The 와/과 set is equivalent to and, and just like 하고, the noun connector we learned in Ep. 20, 와/과 immediately follows a word without any space. Remember, 와/과, and 하고 can only be used after nouns!

I’ll give a quick example: let’s say I want to say oranges and watermelon in Korean. Using 와/과, I would say 오렌지와 수박. If we wanted to use 하고, we would say 오렌지하고 수박. You wouldn’t be able to use 와/과, however, if you wanted to say, for example, I get up and eat in Korean, because 와/과 cannot connect verbs.

There are two questions you probably have now: when would we use 와/과 over 하고, and when would we use 와 over 과? 

The answer to the first question is simple: 와/과 is used when we want to sound more formal than 하고. 

For the second question, we use 와 when the word preceding it ends in a vowel, while we use 과 when the word preceding it ends in a consonant. Let’s look at our previous example to illustrate this. To say orange and watermelon, we say 오렌지와 수박, as 오렌지 ends in the vowel ‘ㅣ' [ ee ]. If we wanted to say watermelon and orange, however, we would say 수박과 오렌지, as 수박 ends with the consonant ‘ㄱ.’

Please repeat after me to say orange and watermelon: 오렌지와 수박   오렌지와 수박   오렌지와 수박

And repeat after me to say watermelon and orange: 수박과 오렌지   수박과 오렌지   수박과 오렌지

Let’s practice with more examples. For my friend and I, you’d say 내 친구하고 나. Or, using the new connector, you can say 내 친구와 나. Please repeat after me to say my friend and I in Korean: 내 친구와 나   내 친구와 나   내 친구와 나
Notice that 친구 ends in a vowel, so we use 와.

To say today and tomorrow, you can say 오늘하고 내일, or using the new noun connector, sounding a little formal, you can say 오늘과 내일. Please repeat after me to say today and tomorrow in Korean: 오늘과 내일   오늘과 내일   오늘과 내일
Again, notice that this time, 오늘 ends in the consonant ㄹ, so we use 과.

Using these phrases, let’s make a few sentences. 

How would you say My friend and I exercise together to sound a little more formal? Yes, it’s 내 친구와 나는 같이 운동해요:
The phrase 내 친구와 my friend and I is followed by the particle 는, so 내 친구와 나는 means as for my friend and I, and we have the adverb 같이 which means together, and the verb 운동해요 which means exercise.

Please repeat after me to say My friend and I exercise together:

내 친구와 나/는/ 같이/ 운동해요.
내 친구와 나는/ 같이/ 운동해요.
내 친구와 나는 같이 운동해요.

What about if someone asked if you’re free today and tomorrow, and you want to respond I am busy at least today and tomorrow? Yes, you can say, 오늘과 내일은 바빠요. A little note of review for those that want to know why the 은 is here: by putting 은 after the string of nouns 오늘과 내일, the speaker implies that at least today and tomorrow they’re busy, but they’re not busy on other days. Because understanding the usage of the 은/는 particle can take some time, I’ll provide review examples whenever possible.

Let’s continue to expand on 와/과 and practice saying My friend and I are busy at least today and tomorrow: Please repeat after me:


내 친구와 나/는/ 오늘과 내일/은/ 바빠요.
내 친구와 나는/ 오늘과 내일은/ 바빠요.
내 친구와 나는 오늘과 내일은 바빠요.

Ok, back to the practice sentences. Instead of My friend and I exercise together where ‘my friend and I ‘ are the subjects of the sentence, what about if you want to say, I exercise with my friend in which the subject is only the  I ? 

This is where we see the second meaning of 하고 and 와/과 being used. Besides and,  와/과 and 하고 are used to mean ‘with’ when there is no additional noun following the noun+하고 or noun+와/과 combo. 

Here’s the Korean sentence for I, with my friend, exercise:


나는 친구하고 운동해요 or, using today’s connector, you can say 나는 친구와 운동해요. Imagine someone calls and asks you what you’re doing when you are working out with a friend. You can omit subject phrase 나는 as it is clearly understood in the context and just say, 친구하고 운동해요 or 친구와 운동해요. 

Now, I’ll ask you a question, 지금 뭐 해요, meaning now, what are you doing? 

Try to answer the question by imagining an activity you’re doing with someone. I’ll give you a few seconds. (. . . ) 

 

If you were in a call with a friend, your answer would be 친구하고 전화해요 or 친구와 전화해요; if you were having a meal with a friend, your answer would be 친구하고 밥 먹어요 or 친구와 밥 먹어요; if you’re in a meeting with a client, your answer would be 클라이언트하고 미팅해요 or 클라이언트와 미팅해요.

*Please note, though, that for the sake of practicing, I’ve given example sentences using 와/과. However, in colloquial speech, people use 하고 far more often than 와/과. Therefore, to my ear and probably to most native speakers, 하고 would have sounded more natural as the contexts given for our practice sentences were not situated in a formal setting.

 

Ok, now, on this expanded meaning of the noun connectors 하고 and 와/과, let me introduce today’s song by Psy, 낙원, released in 2002. I’ll present three sections from the song, all in the same structure with slightly different wordings. The lyrics tell Psy’s idea of a paradise or heaven, which I thought to be sweet and quite romantic. I’ll go over the lyrics of the first section, line by line:  

난 너와 같은 차를 타고


난 the contraction of 나는, meaning I; 너와 means with you as, 너 is the pronoun addressing someone you talk in 반말 AND the same age as you or younger. It’s followed by the particle 와 which means, in this context, with. So, the phrase ‘난 너와’ would mean  I with you.

Then we have ‘같은 차를 타고,’ which means riding the same car. So the first line, “난 너와 같은 차를 타고” would mean I with you riding the same car.

In the second line, which is in the same structure as the first,  난 너와 ‘I with you’ 같은 곳을 보고  ‘looking at the same place.’ So 난 너와 같은 곳을 보고 would mean ‘I with you looking at the same place.’

In the third line, 난 너와  ‘I with you’; 같이 ‘together’ 같은 곳으로 ’headed to the same place.’ So 난 너와 같이 같은 곳으로 would mean ‘I with you headed to the same place.’

In the next line, we have, 그곳은 천국일 거야: 그곳 ‘that place,’ followed by the topic particle 은; 천국 means heaven; and 일 거야  means ‘must be.’ So 그곳은 천국일 거야 would mean ‘that place must be a heaven.’ Basically, Psy is saying, wherever it may be, if I’m with you, it’s heaven.

I’ll read the four lines with minimum interruption this time: 

난 너와 같은 차를 타고 I with you riding the same car
난 너와 같은 곳을 보고 I with you looking at the same place
난 너와 같이 같은 곳으로  I with you together headed to the same place
그곳은 천국일 거야 That place must be a heaven

Let me play the song now. The one part I would like you to take away from the song is 난 (someone)과/와 or 난 (someone)하고 which means” I with (whomever you name before the connector 와/과 or 하고.” So, please sing along and try to memorize the phrase, 난 너와 or 난 너하고...and later practice with a different person or people to say what you would do with the person. Here is the song: 

(music 1: https://youtu.be/Bx9Do3HJRNk )

The phrases in the next part are in the same structure with slightly different wording. Here they come:  

난 너와 I with you  같이 together  마주하고 facing each other
난 너와 I with you  같이 together  살아 숨쉬고 alive and breathing
난 너와  I with you  같이 together  같은 곳에서 in the same place
여기가 천국인 거야 This place indeed is a heaven

 

Let me play this section now: 

(music 2: https://youtu.be/Bx9Do3HJRNk )

 

Nice. Let’s look at one more section, very much like the previous two sections with changed wording, impromptu at one of Psy’s concerts. You can find its video link in the episode transcript posted on our website, so please watch the clip when you can. It’s quite entertaining. But first, here are the phrases:

난 너와  I with you  같이 together   노래하고 singing
난 너와  I with you  같이 together   소리 지르고 shouting
난 너와  I with you  같이 together   같은 곳에서 in the same place
여기가 한국인 거야 Here indeed is Korea.

 

Now, I'll play the section. Since this is a recording of a concert, you’ll hear the cheering of the crowd in the background.
 

(music 3: https://youtu.be/qXzxKRc5PeM )

Oh well, I think Psy is helping this episode to end on a grand note, and I’ll take that. 

I’ll be back with a new lesson and a song again next time. Please note that we now have lesson recaps and transcripts posted for all episodes on our website, so please use them to review the contents of today’s episode. Until then, keep reviewing and have fun! 

고맙습니다. 안녕히 계세요!

*Featured Song >
Title: 낙원 Paradise  (2002)
Artist: 싸이  Psy
https://youtu.be/qXzxKRc5PeM (the third section in the episode, the concert)
https://youtu.be/Bx9Do3HJRNk (the first and the second sections in the episode)