Grammar On Bullet Points
Course 2

➢ Native Korean Numbers & Chinese-origin Numbers

  • Using numbers in a foreign language does not come easily. Numbers in Korean are a bit more complicated by the fact that two number systems are in use. One is a set of native Korean numbers, which consists of numerals from 1 through 99. The other is a set of Chinese-origin numbers, which is a complete numeral set.

 

  • Certain things are counted or named with Chinese-origin numbers while others with native Korean numbers. For example, when saying the time, the Korean number is used for the hour and the Chinese number for the minute:
     

       Ex> (Korean number)시  (Chinese-origin number)분
       (Korean number)[shee] (Chinese-origin number)[boon]
       (the point of the hour)o’clock  (the point of the minute) minutes

 

  • Since native Korean numbers exist only from 1 through 99, the Chinese-origin number system is used for anything beyond 99. When to use which system is something one needs to learn as it comes.

 

  • There are ample ‘classifiers’ used with numbers. The classifier is a dependent noun that must be combined with another noun. It follows a numeral, connoting the kind of object under discussion. For example, when you hear the classifier – 마리  [mah-ree] after a number, although you may not know specifically which animal, you at least know that the objects in discussion are animals. If you hear the classifier – 송이  [sohng-ee] after a number, you know that the objects in discussion are flowers. We will take a closer look at classifier in the next lesson.

➢ Possessive Particle 의 & Its Use

  • 의 is a possessive particle. It follows a noun or a pronoun that has the ownership of something. Think of 의 as the possessive marker ’s in English:
     

       Ex> ‘my cell phone’

       Noun 1’s Noun 2 = (Noun 1)+ 의  + (Noun 2)
       “I” + ’s  + cell phone = 저의 핸드폰

 

 

  • When the pronoun 저 ‘I’  is followed by the possessive particle의, they are often contracted to 제:
     

       Ex> ‘my cell phone’
       저의 핸드폰 ->  제 핸드폰

 

  • A phrase consisting of a noun and the possessive particle 의 (‘Noun 1+의’) can be followed by more than one noun phrase (‘Noun 2+의’ and ‘Noun 3’ etc.). As in English, the order in a string of possessive phrases is a descending one, from the larger unit to the smaller unit (descending order of hierarchy). It gradually brings into focus the purview of the ownership:
    Noun1 > Noun2 > Noun3:

     

    Ex 1>  “JinWoo’s cell phone’s number”
    JinWoo > cell phone > number 진우 > 핸드폰 > 번호 = 진우(의)  핸드폰(의 ) 번호 =진우 핸드폰 번호

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  • Ex 2> “the sofa in the lobby of my building”
    my > building > the lobby > the sofa:
    제 > 빌딩 > 로비 > 소파 = 제 아파트(의) 로비(의) 소파 = 제 빌딩 로비의 소파

 

  • The possessive particle – 의 is usually pronounced [에], except in formal speech.Style: 

➢ Irregular Verb Conjugation: 하다 & 하다 Compound Verbs

  • 하다 Verb: The verb  하다 which means ‘to do’ shows an irregular conjugation. The verbal stem is always the same for all verbs: simply ‘subtract’ 다 from the infinitive form and thus 하  is the stem for 하다. Its continuative stem (VCS) is 해, showing deviation from the regular conjugation rules:
    Verb Stem (VS): 하
    Verb Continuative Stem (VCS): 해

  • 하다 Compound Verbs: When the verb 하다 follows a noun (N), it becomes a 하다 compound verb with the meaning ‘to do N’:

 

       Ex 1> 전화 telephone + 하다 à 전화하다 ‘to make a call’

       Ex 2> 파티 party + 하다 à 파티하다  ‘to party; to have a party’

 

  • The 하다 compound verb will have the same conjugation as the  하다 verb:

  • Verb Stem (VS): N하
    Verb Continuative Stem (VCS): N해

➢ Irregular Verb Conjugation: ㄷ- Irregular Verbs

  • Some verbs whose stem ends with the consonant ㄷare ㄷ-irregular verbs:
    Ex 1> 듣다: to listen, to hear; to take a course
    Verb Stem: 듣 = ㄷ + ㅡ + ㄷEx 2> 걷다: to walk

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  • Verb Stem: 걷 = ㄱ + ㅓ + ㄷ

  • Some verbs whose stem ends with the consonant ㄷare ㄷ-irregular verbs:
    Ex 1> 듣다: to listen, to hear; to take a course
    Verb Stem: 듣 = ㄷ + ㅡ + ㄷEx 2> 걷다: to walk

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  • Verb Stem: 걷 = ㄱ + ㅓ + ㄷ

sample➢ Irregular Verb Conjugation: ㄷ- Irregular Verbs

  • Some verbs whose stem ends with the consonant ㄷare ㄷ-irregular verbs:
    Ex 1> 듣다: to listen, to hear; to take a course
    Verb Stem: 듣 = ㄷ + ㅡ + ㄷEx 2> 걷다: to walk

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  • Verb Stem: 걷 = ㄱ + ㅓ + ㄷ